Another risk is also one of the things that makes them so attractive: leverage. For example, futures dealers must place only 2-10% of the contract in a margin account to retain ownership. If the value of the underlying asset decreases, they must add money to the margina account to get that percentage until the contract expires or is compensated. If commodity prices continue to fall, margin account coverage can lead to huge losses. The U.S. Commodity Trading Commission Education Center provides extensive information on derivatives. A speculator who expects the euro to appreciate against the dollar could benefit from a derivative that appreciates with the euro. When the investor uses derivatives to speculate on the price of an underlying asset, he is not required to have a holding or portfolio presence in the underlying. Rivative Primer, supra note 1. Congress recently passed a financial reform law that significantly improves the regulatory structure around trading in DEERIV derivatives. See Infra-Notes 136-71.
Options are similar to futures contracts because they are agreements in which one party gives another party the option to buy or sell a security at an agreed later date. The main difference between futures and options is that, in an option, the buyer is not required to follow the transaction if he chooses not to comply with the transaction. In the end, the exchange is optional. In the United States, the combined efforts of the SEC and the CFTC had produced more than 70 proposed and definitive derivatives rules up to February 2012.  Both, however, had delayed the adoption of a number of derivatives rules because of the burden imposed by other rules, litigation and opposition to the rules, and many core definitions (such as «swap,» «security-based swap» and «security-based swap participant») had still not been adopted.  SEC President Mary Schapiro said, «Ultimately, it probably makes no sense to harmonize everything [between SEC and CFTC rules], because some of these products are very different and the market structures are certainly very different.»  On February 11, 2015, the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) issued two final rules to establish a framework for reporting and disclosing security-based swap data.  Both rules are not fully compliant with THE CFTC`s requirements. A credit derivative is a contract between two parties and allows a creditor or lender to transfer credit risk to a third party. The contract transfers the credit risk that the borrower may not repay the loan.
However, the loan remains on the lender`s books, but the risk is transferred to another party.